Spring Framework 基础组建探秘之 Beans


可能你已经习惯了直接从 Spring Initializer 来初始化一个 Spring Boot 项目,然后整个 Spring 框架就被带到项目里面来了。其实 Spring 作为一个十分优秀的框架,每个组建都是可以独立使用的。 探索 Spring Beans 组建,我们就从头开始添加需要的 Jar 包。

Build From Source

参考 Spring 官方文档, 下载编译源代码

git clone [email protected]:spring-projects/spring-framework.git
cd spring-framework

./gradlew build


使用 Spring Beans

我们新建一个 Maven 项目来单独使用 Spring Beans。 我使用 Intellij Idea, File -> New -> Project, 选择 Maven 项目模板,创建一个空项目。 新建第一个类: me.fengqijun.Main


添加 Spring Beans 的 Jar 包。 通过 Open Module Setting 来设置项目以来的 Libries

module setting

添加之前我们自己编译出来的 Jar 包, Jar 包的路径是在 spring 项目下,对应的 module, build -> libs 下,

add jars

看到这里一共添加了 3 个 jar 包,这个 Core 是 Beans 依赖的, 而 apache commons 是 Core 依赖的。

使用 Beans

添加 MyTestBean.java 类,

package me.fengqijun;

public class MyTestBean {
    private String testStr = "test string";

    public String getTestStr() {
        return testStr;

    public  void setTestStr(String value) {
        this.testStr = value;

在 resources 目录下,添加 beans.xml 文件

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<beans xmlns="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans"
       xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans/spring-beans.xsd">
    <bean id="myTestBean" class="me.fengqijun.MyTestBean" />

修改 Main.java 类

package me.fengqijun;

import org.springframework.beans.factory.support.DefaultListableBeanFactory;
import org.springframework.beans.factory.xml.XmlBeanDefinitionReader;
import org.springframework.core.io.ClassPathResource;

public class Main {
    public static void main(String[] args) {

        DefaultListableBeanFactory factory = new DefaultListableBeanFactory();

        XmlBeanDefinitionReader xmlBeanDefinitionReader = new XmlBeanDefinitionReader(factory);
        xmlBeanDefinitionReader.loadBeanDefinitions(new ClassPathResource("beans.xml"));

        MyTestBean bean = (MyTestBean) factory.getBean("myTestBean");


运行,可以看到 Console 输出:


入门 Bean Factory

从示例代码里看到,用 DefaultListableBeanFactory, 这个示 Spring 默认的 BeanFactory,

Spring's default implementation of the {@link ConfigurableListableBeanFactory} and {@link BeanDefinitionRegistry} interfaces: a full-fledged bean factory based on bean definition metadata, extensible through post-processors.

而 BeanFactory 需要有一个 BeanDefinitionReader,通过 Reader 来加载 Beans。

# XmlBeanDefinitionReader.java
public int loadBeanDefinitions(EncodedResource encodedResource) throws BeanDefinitionStoreException {
		Assert.notNull(encodedResource, "EncodedResource must not be null");
		if (logger.isTraceEnabled()) {
			logger.trace("Loading XML bean definitions from " + encodedResource);

      return doLoadBeanDefinitions(inputSource, encodedResource.getResource());

# doLoadBeanDefinitions 由调用了 registerBeanDefinitions

public int registerBeanDefinitions(Document doc, Resource resource) throws BeanDefinitionStoreException {
	BeanDefinitionDocumentReader documentReader = createBeanDefinitionDocumentReader();
	int countBefore = getRegistry().getBeanDefinitionCount();
	documentReader.registerBeanDefinitions(doc, createReaderContext(resource));
	return getRegistry().getBeanDefinitionCount() - countBefore;

这里又调用了一个 DefaultBeanDefinitionDocumentReader 的 registerBeanDefinitions, 这个是默认的 Reader,

	 * Register each bean definition within the given root {@code <beans/>} element.
	@SuppressWarnings("deprecation")  // for Environment.acceptsProfiles(String...)
	protected void doRegisterBeanDefinitions(Element root) {
		// Any nested <beans> elements will cause recursion in this method. In
		// order to propagate and preserve <beans> default-* attributes correctly,
		// keep track of the current (parent) delegate, which may be null. Create
		// the new (child) delegate with a reference to the parent for fallback purposes,
		// then ultimately reset this.delegate back to its original (parent) reference.
		// this behavior emulates a stack of delegates without actually necessitating one.
		BeanDefinitionParserDelegate parent = this.delegate;
		this.delegate = createDelegate(getReaderContext(), root, parent);

		if (this.delegate.isDefaultNamespace(root)) {
			String profileSpec = root.getAttribute(PROFILE_ATTRIBUTE);
			if (StringUtils.hasText(profileSpec)) {
				String[] specifiedProfiles = StringUtils.tokenizeToStringArray(
						profileSpec, BeanDefinitionParserDelegate.MULTI_VALUE_ATTRIBUTE_DELIMITERS);
				// We cannot use Profiles.of(...) since profile expressions are not supported
				// in XML config. See SPR-12458 for details.
				if (!getReaderContext().getEnvironment().acceptsProfiles(specifiedProfiles)) {
					if (logger.isDebugEnabled()) {
						logger.debug("Skipped XML bean definition file due to specified profiles [" + profileSpec +
								"] not matching: " + getReaderContext().getResource());

		parseBeanDefinitions(root, this.delegate);

		this.delegate = parent;


beans call stack